Welcome to the History of Michigan's Beet Sugar Industry where you will discover the detailed history of many of the sugar companies that once dotted Michigan's landscape and of those that continue to add value to Michigan's economy. Much of the credit for what became one of Michigan's enduring industries is owed to Thomas Cranage who formed Michigan Sugar Company in 1898. Read his story and others in this blog.
Recommended Reading List
ALLEN, Clifford, and TITUS, Harold, Michigan Log Marks Their Function And Use During The Great Michigan Pine Harvest, published by the Michigan State College, Agriculture Experiment Station, compiled by the Works Projects Administration, issued 1941, indexed by Alonzo J Sherman, Huron Shores Genealogical Society, c/o Robert J Parks Public Library, 6010 N Skeel Ave, Oscoda Michigan, 2002
ANNALS OF SCIENCE, Volume 56, Issue 22 April 1999 , pages 113 – 141 The Life and Work of Edward Charles Howard FRS, by Frederick Kurzer
AYKROYD, Wallace R, The Story of Sugar, Quadrangle Books, Chicago, 1967
ARRINGTON, Leonard J, Beet Sugar in the West, A History of the Utah-Idaho Sugar Company, 1891-1966, University of Washington, Press, Seattle and London, 1966
ASADI, Mosen, Beet-Sugar Handbook, John Wiley and Sons, 2006
BALD, Clever F., Michigan in Four Centuries, pages 228-230, 250 and page following 338, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, Hagerstown, San Francisco, London, 1954, 1961
BAILEY, Thomas A., The American Pageant, A History of the Republic, 1961 and 1966 editions, D.C. Heath and Company, Boston.
BALLINGER, Roy A. 1971, A History of Sugar Marketing, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Report No. 197, Washington, D. C. Economic Research Service, Marketing Economics Division, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office.
BATES, W.R. The History, Commercial Advantages and Future Prospects of The Saginaw, East Saginaw, Michigan, 1874, pages 64-65, concerning shipping between Detroit and Saginaw, Michigan, 1850 era.
BIDWELL, Perry, and FALCONER, John, History of Agriculture in the Northern United States, 1620-1860 (Washington, 1925), p. 193 - concerning public subsidies to agriculture
BOSWELL, James H and Son (Ed.) American Blue Book – Michigan Attorneys, page 178, 1925
BROCK, Arthur J, The Story of Beet Sugar from the Seed to the Sack, Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Bay City, Michigan, 1933, a periodic publication now out of circulation.
CATTON, Bruce, Michigan, A Bicentennial History, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc, New York, American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tenn, 1976
CHRISTENSON, Donald r. Crop and Soil Sciences Department, Michigan State University STATUS AND POTENTIAL OF MICHIGAN AGRICULTURE SUGARBEETS, Michigan State University Extension, Ag Experiment Station Special Reports - SR529201 07/28/98
CONWAY, Thor, Heartland Of The Ojibwa, Regional Archaeologist, Ontario Ministry of Culture & Recreation, Paper Presented at the 1976 Canadian Archaeological Association Meeting. P.1
CHAMBERLAIN, Joseph S. Chemistry in Agriculture, The Chemical Foundation, Inc. New York, 1926
COMAN, Katherine, Professor of Economics and Sociology in Wellesley College, Industrial History of the United States, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1914, describing the crisis of 1837, pp.228-231
DAMON, Ethel M., Sanford Ballard Dole and His Hawaii, Pacific Books, Palo Alto, California, 1957
DUSTIN, Fred, Saginaw History, 1949, self-published , privately circulated, copy in possession of Saginaw Public Libraries, Saginaw, Michigan, Hoyt Branch.
EDERER, Roselynn, On the Banks of the Beautiful Saugenah, Thomastown Publishing, Saginaw, Michigan, 1999
FERRIS, John. Contribution of the Sugarbeet Industry to the Michigan Economy, Research Report 501, October, 1990, Michigan State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, East Lansing, Michigan
FISHER, Lenard Everett, The Printers, Franklin Watts, Inc, New York, New York , 1965
FOEHL, Harold M, HARGREAVES, Irene M. Logging the White Pine in the Saginaw Valley, Red Keg Press, Bay City, Michigan, 1964
FRANKEL, Eugene "Corpuscular Optics and the Wave Theory of Light: The Science and Politics of Revolution in Physics." Social Studies of Science vol. 6, no 2. May 1976. Sage Publications, Ltd. 15 June 2009
FUTURE FARMERS OF AMERICA, Chapter 133, Pinconning High School, Pinconning Michigan, From Seed to Sugar, 1935
GANSSER, Augustus H. Captain, History of Bay County, MI and Representative Citizens Richmond & Arnold, Chicago, IL, 1905
GARRATY, John A, CARNES, Mark C. American National Biography, Volume 4, pages 804-805, concerning David Lee Child, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999
GLAZER, Sidney, Assistant Professor of History, Early Sugar-Beet Industry in Michigan, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan
GREAT WESTERN SUGAR COMPANY, The Technology of Beet Sugar Manufacture, The Great Western Sugar Company, Denver, Colorado, June 30, 1920 – an instruction manual prepared largely by D. J. Roach for use by the operating employees of the company's beet sugar factories.
GRIM, Joe, (Ed.) Michigan Voices, Page 46 (Comments by Lucius Lyon regarding the Toledo Strip), The Detroit Free Press and Wayne State University Press, 1987
GROSS, Stuart D, Saginaw, A History of the Land and The City, page 50 concerning lumber yields 1850-1900, page 55 for details concerning a fire that engulfed three Michigan counties in 1881, Windsor Publications, Inc, Woodland, California, 1980
GROSS, Stuart D, Saginaw, “Frankie and the Barons”, Wilderness Adventure Books, Fowerlvile, Michigan, 1991
GUTLEBEN, Dan, The Sugar Tramp-1954- Michigan, Printed by: Bay City Duplicating Co, San Francisco, 1954
GUTLEBEN, Dan, logged entries of accounts recorded in the Louisiana Planter for years after 1901
GUTLEBEN, Dan, logged entries of accounts recorded in the Beet Sugar Gazette for years after 1899
HARRIS, F. S. The Sugar-Beet in America, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1919, pp. 6-16
HARTMANN, E.M. (ed.) Technical Vocabulary for American Beet Sugar Processors, Journal American Society Sugar Beet Technologists, 19: (4) 345-364, 1977
HATHAWAY, Richard J, (Ed.) MICHIGAN, Visions of Our Past, Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, Michigan 1989
HENLEY, ROBERT L., Sweet Success . . .The Story of Michigan's Beet Sugar Industry 1898 – 1974, Michigan Historical Center, Department of History, Arts and Libraries
HENLEY, Ronald L., and OJALA, Carl F. Michigan's Changing Beet Sugar Industry. Boyne City, Michigan: The Prestige Press, 1977.—"The Beet Sugar Industry of Michigan: A Geographical Analysis." Michigan Academician 6, No. 3 (Winter, 1974): 321-32.
HONSOWETZ, Lois Kent, (Ed.) Pioneer Memoirs by William R. McCormick & Others, Page 67 (Biographic sketch of George Young) Bay County Historical Society, Bay City, Michigan, 1995
ISRAEL, Fred L. (Ed.) I do Solemnly Swear, The Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States 1789-2001, with an introduction by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr, page 211, first inaugural address of William McKinley, March 4, 1897, comments concerning re-enactment of 1890 tariff provisions. Chelsea House Publishers, Philadelphia, 1965, 2001
JAMES, Marquis, The Life of Andrew Jackson, Part I and Part II, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, New York, 1938
KILAR, Jeremy W – Michigan’s Lumbertowns. Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 1990.
KINGSMAN, Jonathan, (Ed.) Sugar Trading Manual, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England, 2002 –Chapter One, pages 5-6 concerning impact of slavery, pages 8-9 concerning world sugar production.
KIRKWOOD, Joseph, The Story of Chicago, pages 474-475, Dibble Publishing Company, Chicago, 1892.
LANE, Kit, Lucius Lyon: An Eminently Useful Citizen, Pavilion Press, Douglas, Michigan, 1991
LUTES, Della, County Schoolma’am, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1941
LUNDBERG, Ferdinand, America's 60 Families, Vanguard Press, New York, 1937
MAHAR, Thomas – Sweet Energy, the Story of Monitor Sugar Company, Monitor Sugar Company, Bay City, Michigan, 2000
MANSFIELD, J. B., History of the Great Lakes, Vol. 1, Freshwater Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1972 (Biographical sketch of Benjamin Boutell)
MARINE REVIEW, Blue Book of American Shipping, Cleveland, Ohio, 1897, page 166, photograph of the wooden steamer, Thomas Cranage,
MAYO, E. W. (Ed.) Sugar Reference Book and Directory, Volume XV, New York, New York, 1946 (world production and consumption statistics 1850-1945)
MAYO, E.W. (Ed) Sugar Reference Book and Directory, Volume XX, Mona Palmer, Publisher 1952
MAYO, E.W. (Ed) Sugar Reference Book and Directory, Volume XXI, Mona Palmer, Publisher 1953
MAYO, E.W. (Ed) Sugar Reference Book and Directory, Volume XXII, Mona Palmer, Publisher 1954
MAYO, E.W. (Ed) Sugar Reference Book and Directory, Volume XXIII, Mona Palmer, Publisher 1955
MAYO, E.W. (Ed) Sugar Reference Book and Directory, Volume XXIV, Mona Palmer, Publisher 1956
MAYO, E.W. (Ed) Sugar Reference Book and Directory, Volume XXIV, Mona Palmer, Publisher 1957
McGINNIS, R.A. (Ed.) 1982, Beet Sugar Technology, Fort Collins, Colorado , Beet Sugar Development Foundation
MICHIGAN, Documents accompanying the Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Michigan at the annual session in 1838, p. 573
MICHIGAN SUGAR BEET AND CHICORY GROWER, March 16, 1899, West Bay City, Michigan, page 4, Instructions for Beet Culture, page 6, Michigan Bounty Law
MICHIGAN GEOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SURVEY, Publication 8, Geological Series 6, Mineral Resources of Michigan with Statistical Tables of Production and Value of Mineral Products for 1910 and Prior Years. Prepared under the direction of R. C. Allen, Director, Geological and Biological Survey, Lansing, Michigan, Wynkoop Hallenbeck, and Crawford Company, State Printers, 1912. (Concerns Salt Mining, pages 316-336)
MICHIGAN ENVIRONMENTAL COUNCIL - Environmental Report Volume 21. Number 1 February 2003
MICHIGAN PIONEER AND HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS, Volume III, 1881, W. S. George & Company, and Volume XIII, Second Edition, Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co, State Printers, 1908, Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, Lansing, Michigan
MILLER, Ed and BEACH, Jean R The Saginaw Hall of Fame (biography of Joseph W. Fordney) Saginaw, Michigan, Saginaw Hall of Fame, 2000
MILLS, James Cooke, History of Saginaw County, Michigan, page 407 for Silver Jack’s ballad, pgs 466-487 for a description of the Saginaw Sugar Beet Industry, Saginaw, Seemann and Peters, 1918.
MINTZ, Sidney W. Sweetness and Power, Elisabeth Sifton Books, Viking Penguin Inc, New York, 1985
NEWHALL, Ruth Waldo, Spreckels, The Man and The Company, privately circulated
NIKAIDO, Yasujuro, Beet-Sugar Making and its Chemical Control, The Chemical Publishing Company, Easton, Pennsylvania, 1909
QUIMBY, George Irving, Indian Life In The Upper Great Lakes, 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1800, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London, 1960
REED, I.W. (ed) Notes on Beet Sugar Technology, compiled and edited by I.W, Reed at Rocky Ford, Colorado for the American Sugar Crystal Sugar Company sometime after 1945 but before 1965, headquartered then at Denver, Colorado but now headquartered in Moorehead, Minnesota
ROGERS, D. Laurence, Paul Bunyan, How A Terrible Timber Feller Became A Legend, Historical Press, Bay City, Michigan, 1993
RUIZ, Ramon Eduardo, Cuba, The Making of a Revolution, W. W. Norton & Company, New York and London, 1970, Copyright ©1968 University of Massachusetts Press
Special Report on the Beet-Sugar Industry in the United States, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1898, Page 32 (See Chapter Notes for Chapter Six for excerpt)
SEN, Samar Aanjan, Restrictionism During Great Depression in Indian Tea, Jute and Sugar Industries, pages 173-237, Firma KLM Private Limited, Calcutta, 1997
SCHAFFER, Ronald, America In the Great War, The Rise of the War Welfare State, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 1991
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, December, 1935, Vol 1 No 3, A Brief History of the Beet Sugar Industry in Michigan, by E. Wilson Cressey, page 36, 45, 46, also Facts About the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association. This, and all other referenced issues are out of circulation but available for research at the Bay County Historical Society, Bay City, Michigan.
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, June, 1936, Vol 1, Number 9, Page 152, Facts Worth Knowing, by Arthur Brock
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, July 1936, Vol 1, Number 10, Page 191, obituary, E. Wilson Cressey
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, February, 1940, Vol V Number 5, Page 87, article about Cercospora leaf spot, title, “Dusting or Spraying for Control of Blight of the Sugar Beet, by H. C. Young, Page 96, a comparison of 1940 prices with prices in the 1890’s of a number farm products. Page 84, Article about Grant Nichol and Richard Bird hitch hiking to Denver, Colorado to attend a meeting of the American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists, beginning December 30, 1939.
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, January, 1941, Page 73, United States Sugar Beet Crop is Largest on Record.
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, May, 1942, Page 154, history of sugar bureaucracy and the end of sugar rationing.
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, February, 1942, Page 92, changes in the sugar program, title, Payments Upped to Boost Sugar Production
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, September, 1942, Page 229, Washington News Notes- article about sugar rationing, November, 1943, Page, 31, Nazi Prisoners Help Harvest Beet Crop
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, April, 1944, Page 86, Beet Growers Eligible for Ration-Free Sugar, Page 81, Why Your Sugar is Need in 1944
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, March, 1944, Page 64, No Question About Authority to Proceed With 1944 Sugar Beet Program
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, September, 1944, Page 144, Do Sugar Beets Pay? Page 145, statistics describing U.S. Beet Sugar Production 1940-1944, Page 146, Michigan Beet Prospects Up, Ohio Down
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, November-December, 1945, Page 151, article about the need for post-war planning, title, We Had Better Plan for the Future of Sugar, by C. J. Bourg
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, July-August, 1947, Vol XII, Number 5, Shared-Seed Plantings Have Every Advantage. Includes photograph of Grant Nichol and Perce Reeve
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, May-June, 1947, Page 78, Sugar Controls Slated to End October 31, Pages 84-87, Crop-Livestock Farming Is Best for Post-War Restoration of Fertility, by Grant Nichol
SUGAR BEET JOURNAL, A publication of the Farmers and Manufacturers Beet Sugar Association, Saginaw, Michigan, March 1953, Volume XVIII, Number 4, Cover Photograph of Andrew Schwab, Pages 66-67, brief biography of Andrew Schwab
STEFFENS, Bradley, Printing Press, Ideas and Type, Lucent Books, San Diego, California, 1956
TAYLOR, Fred G., Saga of Sugar, Being a Story of the Romance and Development of Beet Sugar in the Rocky Mountain West, Utah-Idaho Sugar Company, Deseret News Press (1944)
TAYLOR, Joe Gray, Louisiana, A Bicentennial History, page 58 and pages 63-65 (ref to Etienne de Bore) Norton & Company, Inc. New York and American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee, 1976
THE NEW ENCLOPADIA BRITANNICA, Volume 7, 15th Edition, Chicago, 2002 pgs 355-356, biographic sketch of Lydia Kamakaeha, also called Lydia Liliuokalani or Liliu Kamakaeha, or Her Royal Highness, Queen Liliuokalani of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
TAUSSING, Frank William, Some Aspects of the Tariff Question, Part II, Chapter IV, Sugar, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass. 1915
UNITED STATES BEET SUGAR ASSOCIATION, The Beet Sugar Story, page 17, for reference to Harvey W. Wiley and James Wilson. Copyright under the title “The Silver Wedge” 1936, 1944, Copyright, 1959 by the United States Beet Sugar Association, Washington, D.C.
WARE, Louis S. Beet-Sugar Manufacture and Refining, Vol I. John Wiley & Sons, New York, First Edition, 1905
WESTERN FARMER, Volume I, Number 1, first issue, Published January 19, 1841, Detroit, Michigan featuring correspondence by future governor John S. Barry concerning his visits with European sugar manufacturers.
WORRELL, Estelle Ansley, American Costume 1840-1920, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1979
ZEHNDER, Herman, The Story of Frankenmuth, Michigan, Bay City, Michigan, 1970, pages 20-21, 64, 67.